Karellen was a homosexual

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Finding Your Own True Myth - The Myth of the Great Secret III

FINDING YOUR OWN TRUE MYTH: What I Learned from Joseph Campbell: The Myth of the Great Secret III

Gay Spirituality

GAY SPIRITUALITY: The Role of Gay Identity in the Transformation of Human Consciousness

Gay Perspective

GAY PERSPECTIVE: Things Our Homosexuality Tells Us about the Nature of God and the Universe

Secret Matter

SECRET MATTER, a sci-fi novel with wonderful "aliens" with an Afterword by Mark Jordan

Getting Life

GETTING LIFE IN PERSPECTIVE:  A Fantastical Gay Romance set in two different time periods

The Fourth Quill

THE FOURTH QUILL, a novel about attitudinal healing and the problem of evil

Two Spirits
TWO SPIRITS: A Story of Life with the Navajo, a collaboration with Walter L. Williams

charmed lives
CHARMED LIVES: Spinning Straw into Gold: GaySpirit in Storytelling, a collaboration with Steve Berman and some 30 other writers

Myth of the Great Secret

THE MYTH OF THE GREAT SECRET: An Appreciation of Joseph Campbell

In Search of God


Finding God


Unpublished manuscripts

About ordering

Books on Gay Spirituality:

White Crane Gay Spirituality Series

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  Toby has done five podcasts with Harry Faddis for The Quest of Life

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  Articles and Excerpts:

Review of Samuel Avery's The Dimensional Structure of Consciousness

Funny Coincidence: "Aliens Settle in San Francisco"

About Liberty Books, the Lesbian/Gay Bookstore for Austin, 1986-1996

The Simple Answer to the Gay Marriage Debate

A Bifurcation of Gay Spirituality

Why gay people should NOT Marry

The Scriptural Basis for Same Sex Marriage

Toby and Kip Get Married

Wedding Cake Liberation

Gay Marriage in Texas

What's ironic

Shame on the American People

The "highest form of love"

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Gay Consciousness

Why homosexuality is a sin

The cause of homosexuality

The origins of homophobia

Q&A about Jungian ideas in gay consciousness

What is homosexuality?

What is Gay Spirituality?

My three messages

What Jesus said about Gay Rights

Queering religion

Common Experiences Unique to Gay Men

Is there a "uniquely gay perspective"?

The purpose of homosexuality

Interview on the Nature of Homosexuality

What the Bible Says about Homosexuality

Mesosexual Ideal for Straight Men

Varieties of Gay Spirituality

Waves of Gay Liberation Activity

The Gay Succession

Wouldn’t You Like to Be Uranian?

The Reincarnation of Edward Carpenter

Why Gay Spirituality: Spirituality as Artistic Medium

Easton Mountain Retreat Center

Andrew Harvey & Spiritual Activism

The Mysticism of Andrew Harvey

The upsidedown book on MSNBC

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"It's Always About You"

The myth of the Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara

Joseph Campbell's description of Avalokiteshvara

You're Not A Wave

Joseph Campbell Talks about Aging

What is Enlightenment?

What is reincarnation?

How many lifetimes in an ego?

Emptiness & Religious Ideas

Experiencing experiencing experiencing

Going into the Light

Meditations for a Funeral

Meditation Practice

The way to get to heaven

Buddha's father was right

What Anatman means

Advice to Travelers to India & Nepal

The Danda Nata & goddess Kalika

Nate Berkus is a bodhisattva

John Boswell was Immanuel Kant

Cutting edge realization

The Myth of the Wanderer

Change: Source of Suffering & of Bliss

World Navel

What the Vows Really Mean

Manifesting from the Subtle Realms

The Three-layer Cake & the Multiverse

The est Training and Personal Intention

Effective Dreaming in Ursula LeGuin's The Lathe of Heaven

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Gay Spirituality

Curious Bodies

What Toby Johnson Believes

The Joseph Campbell Connection

The Mann Ranch (& Rich Gabrielson)

Campbell & The Pre/Trans Fallacy

The Two Loves

The Nature of Religion

What's true about Religion

Being Gay is a Blessing

Drawing Long Straws

Freedom of Religion

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The Gay Agenda

Gay Saintliness

Gay Spiritual Functions

The subtle workings of the spirit in gay men's lives.

The Sinfulness of Homosexuality

Proposal for a study of gay nondualism

Priestly Sexuality

Having a Church to Leave

Harold Cole on Beauty

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Marian Doctrines: Immaculate Conception & Assumption

Not lashed to the prayer-post

Monastic or Chaste Homosexuality

Is It Time to Grow Up? Confronting the Aging Process

Notes on Licking  (July, 1984)

Redeem Orlando

Gay Consciousness changing the world by Shokti LoveStar

Alexander Renault interviews Toby Johnson

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Mystical Vision

"The Evolution of Gay Identity"

"St. John of the Cross & the Dark Night of the Soul."

Avalokiteshvara at the Baths

 Eckhart's Eye

Let Me Tell You a Secret

Religious Articulations of the Secret

The Collective Unconscious

Driving as Spiritual Practice


Historicity as Myth


No Stealing

Next Step in Evolution

The New Myth

The Moulting of the Holy Ghost

Gaia is a Bodhisattva

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The Hero's Journey

The Hero's Journey as archetype -- GSV 2016

The  Gay Hero Journey (shortened)

You're On Your Own


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Seeing Differently

Teenage Prostitution and the Nature of Evil

Allah Hu: "God is present here"

Adam and Steve

The Life is in the Blood

Gay retirement and the "freelance monastery"

Seeing with Different Eyes

Facing the Edge: AIDS as an occasion for spiritual wisdom

What are you looking for in a gay science fiction novel?

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The Vision

The mystical experience at the Servites'  Castle in Riverside

A  Most Remarkable Synchronicity in Riverside

The Great Dance according to C.S.Lewis

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The Techniques Of The World Saviors

Part 1: Brer Rabbit and the Tar-Baby

Part 2: The Bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara

Part 3: Jesus and the Resurrection

Part 4: A Course in Miracles

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The Secret of the Clear Light

Understanding the Clear Light

Mobius Strip

Finding Your Tiger Face

How Gay Souls Get Reincarnated

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Joseph Campbell, the Hero's Journey, and the modern Gay Hero-- a five part presentation on YouTube

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About Alien Abduction

In honor of Sir Arthur C Clarke

Karellen was a homosexual

The D.A.F.O.D.I.L. Alliance

Intersections with the movie When We Rise

More about Gay Mental Health

Psych Tech Training

Toby at the California Institute

The Rainbow Flag

Ideas for gay mythic stories

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Kip and Toby, Activists

Toby's friend and nicknamesake Toby Marotta.

Harry Hay, Founder of the gay movement

About Hay and The New Myth

About Karl Heinrich Ulrichs, the first man to really "come out"

About Michael Talbot, gay mystic

About Fr. Bernard Lynch

About Richard Baltzell

About Guy Mannheimer

About David Weyrauch

About Dennis Paddie

About Ask the Fire

About Arthur Evans

About Christopher Larkin

About Mark Thompson

About Sterling Houston

About Michael Stevens

The Alamo Business Council

Our friend Tom Nash

Second March on Washington

The Gay Spirituality Summit in May 2004 and the "Statement of Spirituality"

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Book Reviews

Be Done on Earth by Howard E. Cook

Pay Me What I'm Worth by Souldancer

The Way Out by Christopher L  Nutter

The Gay Disciple by John Henson

Art That Dares by Kittredge Cherry

Coming Out, Coming Home by Kennth A. Burr

Extinguishing the Light by B. Alan Bourgeois

Over Coffee: A conversation For Gay Partnership & Conservative Faith by D.a. Thompson

Dark Knowledge by Kenneth Low

Janet Planet by Eleanor Lerman

The Kairos by Paul E. Hartman

Wrestling with Jesus by D.K.Maylor

Kali Rising by Rudolph Ballentine

The Missing Myth by Gilles Herrada

The Secret of the Second Coming by Howard E. Cook

The Scar Letters: A Novel by Richard Alther

The Future is Queer by Labonte & Schimel

Missing Mary by Charlene Spretnak

Gay Spirituality 101 by Joe Perez

Cut Hand: A Nineteeth Century Love Story on the American Frontier by Mark Wildyr

Radiomen by Eleanor Lerman

Nights at Rizzoli by Felice Picano

The Key to Unlocking the Closet Door by Chelsea Griffo

The Door of the Heart by Diana Finfrock Farrar

Occam’s Razor by David Duncan

Grace and Demion by Mel White

Gay Men and The New Way Forward by Raymond L. Rigoglioso

The Dimensional Stucture of Consciousness by Samuel Avery

The Manly Pursuit of Desire and Love by Perry Brass

Love Together: Longtime Male Couples on Healthy Intimacy and Communication by Tim Clausen

War Between Materialism and Spiritual by Jean-Michel Bitar

The Serpent's Gift: Gnostic Reflections on the Study of Religion by Jeffrey J. Kripal

Esalen: America and the Religion of No Religion by Jeffrey J. Kripal

The Invitation to Love by Darren Pierre

Brain, Consciousness, and God: A Lonerganian Integration by Daniel A Helminiak

A Walk with Four Spiritual Guides by Andrew Harvey

Can Christians Be Saved? by Stephenson & Rhodes

The Lost Secrets of the Ancient Mystery Schools by Stephenson & Rhodes

Keys to Spiritual Being: Energy Meditation and Synchronization Exercises by Adrian Ravarour

In Walt We Trust by John Marsh

Solomon's Tantric Song by Rollan McCleary

A Special Illumination by Rollan McCleary

Aelred's Sin by Lawrence Scott

Fruit Basket by Payam Ghassemlou

Internal Landscapes by John Ollom

Princes & Pumpkins by David Hatfield Sparks

Yes by Brad Boney

Blood of the Goddess by William Schindler

Roads of Excess, Palaces of Wisdom by Jeffrey Kripal

Evolving Dharma by Jay Michaelson

Jesus in Salome's Lot by Brett W. Gillette

The Man Who Loved Birds by Fenton Johnson

The Vatican Murders by Lucien Gregoire

"Sex Camp" by Brian McNaught

Out & About with Brewer & Berg
Episode One: Searching for a New Mythology

The Soul Beneath the Skin by David Nimmons

Out on Holy Ground by Donald Boisvert

The Revotutionary Psychology of Gay-Centeredness by Mitch Walker

Out There by Perry Brass

The Crucifixion of Hyacinth by Geoff Puterbaugh

The Silence of Sodom by Mark D Jordan

It's Never About What It's About by Krandall Kraus and Paul Borja

ReCreations, edited by Catherine Lake

Gospel: A Novel by WIlton Barnhard

Keeping Faith: A Skeptic’s Journey by Fenton Johnson

Dating the Greek Gods
by Brad Gooch

Telling Truths in Church by Mark D. Jordan

The Substance of God by Perry Brass

The Tomcat Chronicles by Jack Nichols

10 Smart Things Gay Men Can Do to Improve Their Lives by Joe Kort

Jesus and the Shamanic Tradition of Same Sex Love by Will Roscoe

The Third Appearance by Walter Starcke

The Last Hours of Ancient Sunlight by Thom Hartmann

Surviving and Thriving After a Life-Threatening Diagnosis by Bev Hall

Men, Homosexuality, and the Gods by Ronald Long

An Interview with Ron Long

Queering Creole Spiritual Traditons by Randy Conner & David Sparks

An Interview with Randy Conner

Pain, Sex and Time by Gerald Heard

Sex and the Sacred by Daniel Helminiak

Blessing Same-Sex Unions by Mark Jordan

Rising Up by Joe Perez

Soulfully Gay by Joe Perez

That Undeniable Longing by Mark Tedesco

Vintage: A Ghost Story by Steve Berman

Wisdom for the Soul by Larry Chang

MM4M a DVD by Bruce Grether

Double Cross by David Ranan

The Transcended Christian by Daniel Helminiak

Jesus in Love by Kittredge Cherry

In the Eye of the Storm by Gene Robinson

The Starry Dynamo by Sven Davisson

Life in Paradox by Fr Paul Murray

Spirituality for Our Global Community by Daniel Helminiak

Gay & Healthy in a Sick Society by Robert A. Minor

Coming Out: Irish Gay Experiences by Glen O'Brien

Queering Christ by Robert Goss

Skipping Towards Gomorrah by Dan Savage

The Flesh of the Word by Richard A Rosato

Catland by David Garrett Izzo

Tantra for Gay Men by Bruce Anderson

Yoga & the Path of the Urban Mystic by Darren Main

Simple Grace by Malcolm Boyd

Seventy Times Seven by Salvatore Sapienza

What Does "Queer" Mean Anyway? by Chris Bartlett

Critique of Patriarchal Reasoning by Arthur Evans

Gift of the Soul by Dale Colclasure & David Jensen

Legend of the Raibow Warriors by Steven McFadden

The Liar's Prayer by Gregory Flood

Lovely are the Messengers by Daniel Plasman

The Human Core of Spirituality by Daniel Helminiak

3001: The Final Odyssey by Arthur C. Clarke

Religion and the Human Sciences by Daniel Helminiak

Only the Good Parts by Daniel Curzon

Four Short Reviews of Books with a Message

Life Interrupted by Michael Parise

Confessions of a Murdered Pope by Lucien Gregoire

The Stargazer's Embassy by Eleanor Lerman

Conscious Living, Conscious Aging by Ron Pevny

Footprints Through the Desert by Joshua Kauffman

True Religion by J.L. Weinberg

The Mediterranean Universe by John Newmeyer

Everything is God by Jay Michaelson

Reflection by Dennis Merritt

Everywhere Home by Fenton Johnson

Hard Lesson by James Gaston

God vs Gay? by Jay Michaelson

The Gate of Tears: Sadness and the Spiritual Path by Jay Michaelson

Roxie & Fred by Richard Alther

Not the Son He Expected by Tim Clausen

The 9 Realities of Stardust by Bruce P. Grether

The Afterlife Revolution by Anne & Whitley Strieber

AIDS Shaman: Queer Spirit Awakening by Shokti Lovestar

Facing the Truth of Your Life by Merle Yost

The Super Natural by Whitley Strieber & Jeffrey J Kripal

Secret Body by Jeffrey J Kripal

In Hitler's House by Jonathan Lane

Walking on Glory by Edward Swift

The Paradox of Porn by Don Shewey

Is Heaven for Real? by Lucien Gregoire

Scissors, Paper, Rock by Fenton Johnson

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Toby Johnson's titles are available in other ebook formats from Smashwords.

Sometimes I think everything I believe about the nature of life, the universe and God, I learned from Arthur C. Clarke.

**See Toby Johnson's comments about the 2015 Syfy Channel movie**

Karellen as a Shaman

Childhood's End

The main character of Arthur C. Clarke's classic sci-fi novel Childhood's End is the Overlord commander Karellen. Readers of the novel will recall that the book is divided into three parts, each separated by about 50 years. The first section, titled "Earth and the Overlords," features the arrival of the aliens. A quirk of the story is that they do not allow themselves to be seen. They want the people of Earth to be accustomed to them before they reveal their appearance.

The second section, titled The Golden Age, begins with the Overlords' coming down from their spaceships and showing themselves. Suddenly everyone understands why they wanted the 50 year getting-to-know-you time. Those 50 years have brought on a Golden Age for humankind; peace on Earth at last; the Overlords have brought boons in technology and culture that have dramatically improved human life. BUT it turns out they look all the world like devils: leathery wings, little horns, black scaly skin and a little tail. This section ends with the human protagonist, a young black man from South Africa named Jan Rodricks, stowing away on an Overlord ship in order to visit their planet. By the time he returns home, for the third section, another some fifty years has elapsed because of Einsteinian time-dilation caused by the speed of interstellar travel.

The third section, "The Last Generation" then recounts the marvelous but frightening transformation of the Last Generation of human children into spiritual beings who escape the bonds of matter entirely and are absorbed in a great mystical apocalypse into the Overmind, the collective consciousness of the Cosmos itself, "God."

One of the themes of the novel is that the Overlords themselves do not expect ever to be similarly absorbed into the Overmind. Though they are its servants who go about the galaxies overseeing the transformation of biological species into spirit, their race is not evolving in that direction. They forever remain barren.

Here's the ending:
In a soundless concussion of light, Earth's core gave up its hoarded energies. For a little while the gravitational waves crossed and re-crossed the Solar System, disturbing ever so slightly the orbits of the planets. Then the Sun's remaining children pursued their ancient paths once more, as corks floating on a placid lake ride out the tiny ripples set in motion by a falling stone.
There was nothing left of Earth. [The transformed children who were leaving Earth to become one with the Overmind] had leeched away the last atoms of its substance. It had nourished them through the fierce moments of their inconceivable metamorphosis. as the food stored in a grain of wheat feeds the infant plant while it climbs towards the Sun.

Six thousand million kilometers beyond the orbit of Pluto, Karellen sat before a suddenly darkened screen. The record was complete. the mission ended: he was homeward bound for the world he had left so long ago. The weight of centuries was upon him, and a sadness that no logic could dispel. He did not mourn for man: his sorrow was for his own race, forever barred from greatness by forces it could not overcome.

For all their achievements, thought Karellen, for all their mastery of the physical universe, his people were no better than a tribe that had passed its whole existence upon some flat and dusty plain. Far off were the mountains, where power and beauty dwelt, where the thunder sported above the glaciers and the air was clear and keen. There the sun still walked, transfiguring the peaks with glory, when all the land below was wrapped in darkness. And they could only watch and wonder; they could never scale those heights.

Yet, Karellen knew, they would hold fast until the end; they would await without despair whatever destiny was theirs. They would serve the Overmind because they had no choice, but even in that service they would not lose their souls.
Understanding that Sir Arthur was a gay man helps explain Karellen and the Overlords. I childhood's end - first covercorresponded for a while with Clarke, in the late 1990s, when I sought his permission to acknowledge him as a sort of gay wise man/prophet in one of my books on gay spiritual sensitivity. I learned that he was quite fascinated with the role homosexuals have played in history as leaders of culture. C.A. Tripp's book
on Lincoln as gay, The Intimate World of Abraham Lincoln, had just been published and Clarke was enthusiastic about this revelation as evidence.

It is said Clarke has left a collection of his writings--called the "Clarkives"--with the instruction they not be made public until 30 years after his death. I suspect the Clarkives are going to include those writings about homosexuality as cultural leadership.

So those 30 years correspond with the 50 years the Overlords kept themselves in hiding. And their "barrenness" corresponds with the homosexual experience of being excluded from the procession of the generations. Homosexuality has taken some getting used to in modern society. Old ideas have been shown to have been false, misleading and misguided. The Overlords' appearance as devils who turn out to be "angels" as midwives of Earth's planetary mind parallels the recognition of the role homosexuals play in human evolution.

The Overlords in some very real way in Arthur C. Clarke's consciousness, I believe, represent gay people as service providers and culture leaders. And religion, mystical phenomena, and the "mysterious world" (as Clarke's TV shows about fringe phenomena was called) represent the evidence and form of the evolution of human consciousness into "God," i.e., the Overmind, the consciousness of the Cosmos itself. Gay people are the shamans and gatekeepers who work for the development of planetary consciousness and reveal the real meaning of religion.

Read Toby Johnson's essay on Arthur C. Clarke

Read Toby Johnson's suggestions for the Best Gay Science Fiction novels

An updated, revised and expanded edition of Toby Johnson's classic soft sci fi romance novel
SECRET MATTER -- with its quirky and mystical spin on what it means to be gay. Click on the title for info.
The novel begins with an homage to Clarke in the form of aliens arriving in great flying saucers over all the major cities of Earth.


Another "crypto-gay" character in Arthur C. Clarke's opus is the Jester Khedron in The City and the Stars.  Clarke's first novel was Against the Fall of Night which he later rewrote as The City and the Stars.

In both versions of the story, the protagonist is a teenage boy, named Alvin, living in a future domed city called Diaspar that the inhabitants of believe is the only vestige of human life left on Earth.

The character of the Jester appears in the second novel. The Jester is a role that the Central Computer gives in each generation so that something will happen different from what has always happened.
Alvin also is a new being, a creation of the Central Computer who will help lead Diaspar into the future by revealing what really happened in the past.

Khedron the Jester is a guide and helper for Alvin in his heroic quest.

Being such a "jester" and malcontent and goad for change is one of the roles gay men have always played--for better or worse. Khedron, I think, is an example of the gay man as guide for youth.

Alvin saves the world by discovering that most of what the inhabitants of Diaspar believe—and live in fear of—was myth and made-up legend. He discovers there is a whole universe beyond Diaspar. Isn't this the lesson gay men have to teach the youth of every generation?

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About the 2015 Syfy Movie

In December 2015, the Syfy Channel played a three-part mini-series "based on" Childhood's End.

I was relatively accepting of the needs of a movie to keep the same characters throughout, so it made sense to collapse the fifty years in Clarke's novel to a mere fifteen, and to have featured characters from the end of the book appear in the opening--that's specically Milo/Jan Rodricks. In the novel, he is a black South African named Jan; maybe that was a little too Afrikaans and Milo was more appropriate for a citizen of the new South Africa today. In the novel Rikki Stormgren who is the liaison between Earth and the Overlords is the Secretary General of the United Nations. That makes sense. The movie has him an anonymous farmer named Ricky, chosen, apparently, at random. The character of the Christian counselor, the disillusioned and disaffected suicidal mayor of New Athens and the emotionally fragile girlfriend of Milo are all new additions to the plot. I don't think they help; I think they muddle the message.

The book is so much simpler, and so much more realistic than this miniseries. It is science-fiction, not horror. It is about the next step in human evolution. In a way, it is about the true nature of God, not as a human myth, but as a reality in the cosmos at the level of consciousness.

It is a scientifically sensible version of the Christian myth of the Second Coming and the Millennium of Peace. In Clarke's retelling the story, the Savior arrives in a spaceship and bestows technological and scientific boons to usher in The Golden Age, and then assists the Earth through a final stage of evolution into pure spirit. The irony Clarke adds to the familiar story is that the angels who come to prepare the way turn out to look like "devils." But they have come to do good, indeed, the best possible good—to usher humanity into oneness with God, the consciousness of the Cosmos.

In the book, several of the main characters have come to the party at Rupert Boyce’s in Africa, but as a matter of their social lives, not because of sinister "invitations." It's a housewarming party for old friends and an introduction to Rupert's new wife. This is how Jan Rodricks and the Greggsons are introduced. Boyce has a huge collection of books about unexplained phenomena, psychic powers and mystical material and religion. In the novel, there are numerous Overlords, not just Karellen. One of them named Rashaverak is at Boyce’s studying his library when the party happens. As the party is winding down, some people, including Rupert, the Greggsons, and Jan, who is Rupert Boyce's new brother-in-law, are playing with an old-time ouija board. Rashaverak also comes to watch. The ouija board—as they usually do—begins to spell out meaningful sentences. But after a while they seem to be about the Overlords: Man is not alone Near Man is Country of Others. Then Jan speaks up from the group and asks “Which star is the Overlords’ sun?” And the ouija board answers "NGS549672," an astronomical address of a star in the constellation Carina. This is how Jan/Milo discovers the Overlords’ star.

The thing in the movie about the Overlords' alphabet being made up of constellations didn’t really make any sense. They are star-travelers, so the “constellations” would change from every different perspective. And actually in both novel and movie, there's really no need for Jan to know which star they come from for him to want to stow away and go there to see.

But the big reversal in the plot in the movie from the book is the characterization of the Overlords. Karellen is made to be much too sinister in the movie. He wasn’t supposed to be “The Devil,” he was just from a race that looked like what human beings thought of as “devils.” What if they'd evolved from pterodactyls, for instance, flying reptiles? Or from bats?

One of the questions Rikki Stormgren ponders is what must have happened in early Earth history that introduced the image of the Overlords into Earth’s mythology, and especially, why as "devils." In the novel, in a show of affection and trust, Karellen allows Rikki to see him fleetingly through the one-way glass some fifty years before the rest of the world will see. This scene is paralleled in the novel by Ricky the Farmer holding his camera against the mirror as Karellen says, "Goodbye, Ricky."

Playing off Clarke’s idea in 2001: A Space Odyssey, I think maybe we can draw the implication that the Overlords had been to Earth in the distant past and maybe even originally seeded Earth with intelligence or somehow intervened in primate evolution to introduce intelligence—and that is what is mythologized in the Bible and popular legend as the devil’s temptation to eat of the fruit of the Knowledge of Good and Evil. They came for good, but it was misunderstood. And that's the irony throughout Clarke's retelling of the Second Coming.

Kareelen as muppetAt the mall recently,  I saw this stuffed doll in the window of Make-a-Bear Workshop. It’s actually Toothless the Dragon from the movie How to Train Your Dragon. But this is what Karellen should have looked more like. This would be a muppet of him, of course. But he wasn't a monster; he was only devil-like in appearance. Think Underwood Deviled Ham.underwood devil

He is the "snake" in the Garden of Eden, of course, but not as the enemy in the war between Good and Evil, but as the bestower of life and consciousness. (This is what Jeffrey J Kripal discusses in the wonderful book The Serpent's Gift: Gnostic Reflections on the Study of Religion.)

In the novel, The Overlords are much more beneficent. They are simply an advanced race who come to earth and bestow boons of technology and knowledge. AND they are interested in the human race’s “mystical” abilities — which they themselves don’t have.

The conflict in the movie over religion is a much more exaggerated expression of this idea about the Overlords’ interest in religion and mysticism. That whole episode in which the crazy Christian woman shoots Karellen is inserted into the plot for the movie. It didn't help.

And the idea that Karellen protected Ricky from the pain of having children doesn’t fit the plot either. What is going to happen to the children is wonderful. They are advancing to the next step in the evolution of spirit.

But in Clarke it is all very straight forward science that explains the mystical phenomena as evolution of consciousness.

The children are not damned; they don't fly off into space. In fact, they are lovable and their psychic traits are lovable. It's sad, of course, when Karellen explains to Humankind that this is the last generation, but it's not horrific. The children love their parents and are tearful to leave when the spaceships come to pick them up and transport them to Australia. But it is understood that this is for their protection and to allow them to continue in their mystical/spiritual/ consciousness growth.

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Toby Johnson, PhD is author of nine books: three non-fiction books that apply the wisdom of his teacher and "wise old man," Joseph Campbell to modern-day social and religious problems, four gay genre novels that dramatize spiritual issues at the heart of gay identity, and two books on gay men's spiritualities and the mystical experience of homosexuality and editor of a collection of "myths" of gay men's consciousness. 

Johnson's book GAY SPIRITUALITY: The Role of Gay Identity in the Transformation of Human Consciousness won a Lambda Literary Award in 2000.

His  GAY PERSPECTIVE: Things Our [Homo]sexuality Tells Us about the Nature of God and the Universe was nominated for a Lammy in 2003. They remain in print.

FINDING YOUR OWN TRUE MYTH: What I Learned from Joseph Campbell: The Myth of the Great Secret III tells the story of Johnson's learning the real nature of religion and myth and discovering the spiritual qualities of gay male consciousness.

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